Acosta, F. (1975) Etiology and treatment of homosexuality: A review. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 4: 9 - 29.

American Psychiatric Association (1997) Fact Sheet: Homosexuality and Bisexuality. Washington DC:APA. Sept.

 American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Washington DC: APA.

Apperson, L., McAdoo, W. (1968) Parental factors in the childhood of homosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 73, 3: 201 - 206.

Bailey, J., Miller, J., Willerman, L. (1993) Maternally rated childhood gender nonconformity in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 22, 5: 461 - 469.

Bailey, J. Pillard, R. (1991) A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry. 48: 1089 - 1096.

Barnhouse, R. (1977) Homosexuality: A Symbolic Confusion. NY: Seabury Press.

Barrett, R., Barzan, R. (1996) Spiritual experiences of gay men and lesbians. Counseling and Values. 41: 4 - 15.

Bates, J., Skilbeck, W., Smith, K, Bentley, P. (1974) Gender role abnormalities in boys: An analysis of clinical rates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2, 1: 1 - 17.

Begelman, D. (1977) Homosexuality and the ethics of behavioral intervention. Journal of Homosexuality. 2, 3: 213 - 218.

Begelman, D.(1975) Ethical and legal issues of behavior modification (in Hersen, M., Eisler, R., Miller, P. Progress in Behavior Modification. NY: Academic).

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Akman, D. (1991) A review of the short-terms effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 15: 537 - 556.

Bell, A., Weinberg, M., Hammersmith, S. (1981) Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women: Bloomington IN: Indiana U.P.

Bell, A., Weinberg, M. (1978) Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. NY: Simon and Schuster.

Bene, E. (1965) On the genesis of male homosexuality: An attempt at clarifying the role of the parents. British Journal of Psychiatry. 111: 803 - 813.

Berger, J. (1994) The psychotherapeutic treatment of male homosexuality. American Journal of Psychotherapy. 48, 2: 251 - 261.

Bergler, E. (1962) Homosexuality: Disease or Way of Life. NY: Collier Books.

Bieber, I., Bieber, T. (1979) Male homosexuality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 24, 5: 409 - 421.

Bieber, I. (1976) A discussion of "Homosexuality: The ethical challenge." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 44, 2: 163 - 166.

Bieber, I. et al. (1962) Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study of Male Homosexuals. NY: Basic Books.

Bieber, T. (1971) Group therapy with homosexuals. ( In Kaplan, H., Sadock, B. Comprehensive Group sychotherapy, Wiliams & Wilkins: Baltimore MD).

Blitch, J., Haynes, S. (1972) Multiple behavioral techniques in a case of female homosexuality. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 3: 319 - 322.

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1998) Drs. Bradley and Zucker reply. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 37, 3: 244 - 245.26

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender identity disorder: A review of the past 10 Years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 34, 7: 872 - 880.

Brown, D. (1963). Homosexuality and family dynamics. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 27: 227 - 232.

Burr, C. (1996) Suppose there is a gay gene...What then?: Why conservatives should embrace the gay gene. The Weekly Standard. Dec. 16.

Bychowski, G. (1954 ) The structure of homosexual acting out. Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 23: 48 - 61.

Byne, W., Parsons, B. (1993) Human sexual orientation: The biologic theories reappraisal. Archives of General Psychiatry. 50: 229 - 239.

Calabrese, L., Harris, B., Easley, K. (1987) Analysis of variables impacting on safe sexual behavior among homosexual men in the area of low incidence for AIDS. Paper presented at the Third International Conference for AIDS. Washington DC. (in Stall 1988)

Cappon D. (1965) Toward and Understanding of Homosexuality. Englewoord Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Caprio, F. (1954) Female Homosexuality: A Psychodynamic Study of Lesbianism. NY: Citadel.

Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC)

Chapman, B., Brannock, J. (1987) Proposed model of lesbian identity development: An empirical examination. Journal of Homosexuality. 14: 69 - 80.

Clippinger, J. (1974) Homosexuality can be cured. Corrective and Social Psychiatry:  Journal of Behavior Technology Methods and Therapy. 21, 2: 15 - 28

Coleman, E. (1978) Toward a new model of treatment of homosexuality: A review. Journal of Homosexuality. 3, 4: 345 - 357.

Conrad, S., Wincze, J. (1976) Orgasmic reconditioning: A controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of adult male homosexuals. Behavior Therapy. 7: 155 -166.

Crewdson, J. (1995) Study on 'gay gene' challenged. Chicago Tribune. June 25.

Davison, G. (1982) Politics, ethics and therapy for homosexuality. (in Paul, W., Weinrich, J., Gonsiorek, J., Hotredt, M., Homosexuality: Social, Psychological and Biological Issues. Berverly Hills CA: Sage) 89 - 96.

Doll, L., Joy, D., Batholow, B., Harrison, J., Bolan, G., Douglas, J., Saltzman, L., Moss, P., Delgado, W. (1992) Self-reported childhood and adolescent sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men. Child Abuse & Neglect. 18: 825 - 864.

de Beauvoir, S. (1953) The Second Sex. NY: Knopf: .

Eckert, E., Bouchard, T., Bohlen, J., Heston, L. (1986) Homosexuality in monozygotic twins reared apart. British Journal of Psychiatry. 148: 421 - 425.

Eisenbud, R. (1982) Early and later determinants of lesbian choice. Psychoanalytic Review. 69, 1: 85 - 109

Ellis, A. (1956) The effectiveness of psychotherapy with individuals who have severe homosexual problems. Journal of Consulting Psychology. 20, 3: 191 - 195.

Engel, B. (1982) The Right to Innocence. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher.

Ernulf, K., Innala, S., Whitam, F. (1989) Biological explanation, psychological explanation, and tolerance of homosexual: A cross-national analysis of beliefs and attitudes. Psychological Reports. 65: 1003 - 1010.

Exodus North America (1990-2000) Update. Exodus: Seattle WA.

Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., Beautrais, A. (1999) Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people?" Archives of General Psychiatry. 56, 10: 876 -888.

Fifield, L., Latham, J., Phillips, C. (1977) Alcoholism in the Gay Community: The Price of Alienation, Isolation and Oppression, A Project of the Gay Community Service Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Fine, R. (1987) Psychoanalytic theory. (in Diamant L. Male and Female Homosexuality: Psychological Approaches. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing.) 81 - 95.

Finkelhor, D. et al. (1986) A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park CA: Sage.

Finkelhor, D (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. NY: The Free Press.

Fisher, S., Greenberg, R. (1996) Freud Scientifically Reappraisal. NY: Wiley & Sons.

Fitzgibbons, R. (1999) The origins and therapy of same-sex attraction disorder. (in Wolfe, C. Homosexuality and American Public Life. Spense) 85 - 97.

Friedman, R. Stern, L. (1980) Juvenile aggressivity and sissiness in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. 8, 3: 427 - 440.

Friedman, R., Wollesen, F., Tendler, R. (1976) Psychological development and blood levels of sex steroids in male identical twins of divergent sexual orientation. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 163, 4: 282 - 288.  27

Friedman, R. (1988) Male Homosexuality: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective. New Haven: Yale U. Press.

Gadd, J. (1998) New study fails to find so-called 'gay gene'. Toronto Globe and Mail. June 2.

Garofalo, R., Wolf, R., Kessel, S., Palfrey, J., DuRant, R., (1998) The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents: Youth risk behavior survey. Pediatrics. 101, 5: 895 - 903.

George, Cardinal (1999) Address to National Association of Catholic Diocesan Lesbian & Gay Ministries, Chicago, IL LifeSite Daily News: October 26.

Gittings, B. (1973) Gay, Proud, Healthy. Philadelphia PA: Gay Activists Alliance.

Goetze, R. (1997) Homosexuality and the Possibility of Change: A Review of 17 Published Studies.  Toronto Canada: New Directions for Life.

Goldberg, S. (1992) What is normal?: If something is heritable, can it be called abnormal? But is homosexuality heritable. National Review. Feb. 3. 36 - 38.

Golwyn, D., Sevlie, C. (1993) Adventitious change in homosexual behavior during treatment of social phobia with phenelzine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 54, 1: 39 - 40.

Gonsiorek, J. (1982) The use of diagnostic concepts in working with gay and lesbian populations. (in Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth) 9 - 20.

Goode, E., Haber, L. (1977) Sexual correlates of homosexual experience: An exploratory study of college women. Journal of Sex Research. 13, 1: 12 - 21

Green, R. Newman, L., Stoller, R. (1972) Treatment of boyhood "transsexualism," Archives of General Psychiatry. 26: 213 - 217 (in Zucker 1975)

Green, R. (1974) Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults. Baltimore: Penguin.

Green, R. (1985) Gender identity in childhood and later sexual orientation: Follow-up of 78 males. American Journal of Psychiatry. 142, 3: 339 - 441.

Green, R. (1988) The immutability of (homo) sexual orientation: Behavioral science implications for a constitutional analysis. Journal of Psychiatry and Law. 16, 4: 537 - 575.

Gundlach, R., Riess, B. (1967) Birth order and sex of siblings in a sample of lesbians and non-lesbians. Psychological Reports. 20:61 - 62.

Hadden, S. (1967a) Male homosexuality. Pennsylvania Medicine. Feb.: 78 - 80

Hadden, S. (1967b) A way out for homosexuals. Harper's Magazine. March: 107 - 120.

Hadden, S. (1958)Treatment of homosexuality by individual and group psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry. March. 810 - 815.

Hadfield, J. (1958) The cure of homosexuality. British Medical Journal. 1: 1323 - 1326.

Hamer, D., Hu, S., Magnuson, V., Hu, A., Pattatucci, A. (1993) A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation. Science. 261: 321 - 327.

Harry, J. (1989) Parental physical abuse and sexual orientation in males. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 18, 3: 251 - 261.

Hatterer, L. (1970) Changing Homosexuality in the Male. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Herek, G. (1991) Myths about sexual orientation: A lawyer's guide to social science research. Law & Sexuality. 1: 133 - 172.

Herrell, R.,Goldberg, J., True, W., Ramakrishnan, V., Lyons, M., Eisen, S., Tsuang, M. (1999) A co-twin control study in adult Men: Sexual orientation and suicidality. Archives of General Psychiatry. 56, 10: 867 - 874.

Herron, W., Kinter, T., Sollinger, I., Trubowitz, J. (1982) Psychoanalytic psychotherapy for homosexual clients: New concepts. (in Gonsiorek, J. Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth)

Heston, L., Shield, J. (1968) Homosexuality in twins. Archives of General Psychiatry. 18: 149 - 160.

Hockenberry, S., Billingham, R. (1987) Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: Development of the boyhood gender conformity scales (BGCS) Archives of Sexual Behavior. 16, 6: 475 - 492.

Hoover, D., Munoz, A., Carey, V., Chmiel, J., Taylor, J., Margolick, J., Kingsley, L., Vermund, S. (1991) Estimating the 1978 - 1990 and future spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in subgroups of homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 134, 10: 1190 - 1205.

Horgan, J. (1995) Gay genes, revisited: Doubts arise over research on the biology of homosexuality. Scientific American. Nov. : 28.

Hurst, E. (1980) Homosexuality: Laying the Axe to the Roots. Minneapolis MN: Outpost.

Isay, R., Friedman, R. (1989) Toward a further understanding of Homosexual Men. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association: Scientific Proceedings. 193 - 206. 28

Johnson, R., Shrier, D. (1985) Sexual victimization of boys: Experience at an adolescent medicine clinic. Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 6: 372 - 376.

Kaplan, E. (1967) Homosexuality: A search for the ego-ideal. Archives of General Psychology. 16: 355 - 358.

Kaye, H., Beri, S., Clare, J., Eleston, M., Gershwin, B., Gershwin, P., Kogan, L., Torda, C., Wilber, C.(1967) Homosexuality in Women. Archives of General Psychiatry. 17: 626 - 634.

Kronemeyer, R. (1980) Overcoming Homosexuality. NY: Macmillian

LeVay, S. (1991) A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science. 258: 1034 - 1037.

MacIntosh, H. (1994) Attitudes and experiences of psychoanalysts. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 42, 4: 1183 - 1207.

Mallen, C. (1983) Sex role stereotypes, gender identity and parental relationships in male homosexuals and heterosexuals. Homosexuality and Social Sex Roles. 7: 55 - 73.

Marmor, J. (1965) Sexual Inversion: The Multiple Roots of Homosexualty. NY: Basic

Marmor, J. (1975)Homosexuality and Sexual Orientation Disturbances. (In Freedman, A., Kaplan, H.,  Sadock, B. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry: II, Second Edition. Baltimore MD:Wilaims & Wilkins)

Master, W., Johnson, V. (1979) Homosexuality in Perspective. Boston: Little Brown, Co.

McConaghy, (1980) A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: Sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9: 123 - 131.

McGuire, T. (1995) Is homosexuality genetic? A critical review and some suggestions. Journal of Homosexuality. 28, 1/2: 115 - 145.

Menvielle, E. (1998) Gender identity disorder (Letter to the editor in response to Bradley and Zucker article). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 37, 3: 243 -244

Mirkin, H. (1999) The pattern of sexual politics: Feminism, homosexuality, and pedophilia. Journal of Homosexuality. 37, 2: 1 -24.

Morris, M., Dean, L. (1994) Effects of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 140, 3: 217 - 232.

Mulry, G., Kalichman, S., Kelly, J. (1994) "Substance use and unsafe sex among gay men: Global versus situational use of substances. Journal of Sex Educators and Therapy. 20, 3: 175 - 184.

Murphy, T. (1992) Redirecting sexual orientation: Techniques and justifications. Journal of Sex Research. 29: 501- 523.

NARTH (2000) "Dr. Laura" Interview Psychiatric Association's Robert Spitzer. NARTH Bulletin. 8,1:26- 27.

Nelson, J. (1982) Religious and moral issues in working with homosexual clients.(in Gonsiorek, J. Homosexuality and Psychotherapy. NY: Haworth) 163 - 175.

Newman, L. (1976) Treatment for the parents of feminine boys. American Journal of Psychiatry. 133, 6: 683 - 687.

Nicolosi, J., Byrd, A., Potts, R. (1998) Towards the Ethical and Effective Treatment of Homosexuality. Encino CA: NARTH.

Osmond, D., Page, K., Wiley, J., Garrett, K., Sheppard, H., Moss, A., Schrager, K., Winkelstein, W. (1994) HIV infection in homosexual and bisexual men 18 to 29 years of age: The San Francisco young men's health study. American Journal of Public Health. 84, 12: 1933 - 1937.

Parker, N. (1964) Homosexuality in twins: A report on three discordant pairs. British Journal of Psychiatry. 110: 489 - 492.

Parris, J., Zweig-Frank, H., Guzder, J. (1995) Psychological factors associated with homosexuality in males with borderline personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders. 9, 11: 56 - 61

Phillips, G., Over, R. (1992) Adult sexual orientation in relation to memories of childhood gender conforming and gender nonconforming behaviors. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 21, 6: 543 - 558.

Pillard, R. (1988) Sexual orientation and mental disorder. Psychiatric Annals. 18, 1: 52 - 56.

Piskur, J., Degelman, D. (1992) Effect of reading a summary of research about biological bases of homosexual orientation on attitudes toward homosexuals. Psychological Reports. 71: 1219 -1225.

Porter, R. (1996) Born that Way: A review of Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality by Simon LeVay and A Separate Creation by Chandler Burr. New York Times Book Review. August 11.

Rainer, J. et al. (1960) Homosexuality and heterosexuality in identical twins. Psychosomatic Medicine. 22: 251 - 259.

Rekers, G., Lovaas, O., Low, B. (1974) Behavioral treatment of deviant sex role behaviors in a male child.

Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis. 7: 134 - 151 (in Newman 1976).

Rekers, G. (1988) The formation of homosexual orientation. (In Fagan, P. Hope for Homosexuality. Washington DC: Free Congress Foundation.)

Rice, G., Anderson, C., Risch, N., Ebers, G. (1999) Male homosexuality: Absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28. Science. April.

Rind, B., Bauserman, R., Tromovitch, P. (1998) A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin. 124, 1: 22 -53

Rogers, C., Roback, H., McKee, E., Calhoun, D. (1976) Group psychotherapy with homosexuals: A review. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 31, 3: 3 - 27

Rotello, G. (1997). Sexual Ecology: AIDS and the Destiny of Gay Men. NY: Dutton.

Saghir, M., Robins, E. (1973) Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation. Baltimore MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Satinover, J. (1996) Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth. Grand Rapids MI: Baker.

Schreier, B. (1998) Of shoes, and ships, and sealing wax: The faulty and specious assumptions of sexual reorientation therapies. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 20, 4: 305 - 314.

Schwartz, M., Masters, W. (1984) The Masters and Johnson treatment program for dissatisfied homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry. 141: 173 - 181.

Signorile, M. (1997) Life Outside: The Signorile Report on Gay Men: Sex, Drugs, Muscles, and the Passages of Life. NY: Harper Collins.

Silverstein, C. (1972) Behavior Modification and the Gay community. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. NY. Oct.(quoted by Davison 1982)

Sipova, I., Brzek, A. (1983) Parental and interpersonal relationships of transsexual and masculine and feminine homosexual men. (in Homosexuals and Social Roles. NY: Haworth). 75 - 85.

Sleek, S. (1997) Concerns about conversion therapy. APA Monitor. October. 28:16

Smith, J.(1988) Psychopathology, homosexuality, and homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality. 15, 1/2: 59 - 74:

Snortum, J., Gillespie, J., Marshall, J., McLaughin, J., Mosberg, L. (1969) Family dynamics and homosexuality. Psychological Reports. 24: 763 - 770.

Stall, R., Coates, T., Hoff, C. (1988a) Behavioral risk reduction for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men. American Psychologist. 43, 11: 878 - 885.

Stall, R., Wiley, J. (1988b) A comparison of alcohol and drug use patterns of homosexual and heterosexual  men: The San Francisco Men's Health Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 22: 63 - 73.

Stephan, W. (1973) Parental relationships and early social experiences of activist male homosexuals and male heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 82, 3: 506 - 513.

Stoller, R. (1978) Boyhood gender aberrations: Treatment issues. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 26: 541 - 558 (in Zucker 1995)..

Thompson, N. Schwartz, D., McCandles, B., Edwards, D. (1973) Parent-child relationships and sexual identity in male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 41, 1: 120 - 127.

Throckmorton, W. (1996) Efforts to modify sexual orientation: A review of outcome literature and ethical issues. Journal of Mental Health and Counseling. 20, 4: 283 - 305.

Tripp, C. Hatterer, L. (1971) Can homosexuals change with Psychotherapy? Sexual Behavior. 1, 4: 42 - 49.

van den Aardweg, G. (1967) Homophilia, Neurosis and the Compulsion to Complain. Amsterdam: Polak, van Gennep.

West, D. (1977) Homosexuality Re-examined. London: Duckworth

Whitam, F. (1977) Childhood indicators of male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 6, 2: 89 - 96.

Wolpe, J. (1969) The Practice of Behavior Therapy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon

Zubenko, G., George, A., Soloff, P., Schulz, P. (1987) Sexual practices among patients with borderline personality disorder. American Journal Psychiatry.144, 6: 748 - 752.

Zucker, K., Bradley, S. (1995) Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents. NY: Guilford.

Zuger, B. (1976) Monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: Report of a pair and significance of the phenomenon. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 17: 661 - 669.